Project planning is part of project management, which involves using calendars such as Gantt charts to plan and then report on progress in the project environment.
Initially, the scope of the project is defined and the appropriate methods for carrying it out are determined. After this step, the durations of the various tasks required to complete the work are listed and grouped together in a work breakdown structure. Project planning is often used to organize different areas of a project, including project plans, workloads, and team and individual management. Logical dependencies between tasks are defined using an activity network diagram that identifies the critical path.
When planning, the alternatives are examined and the best alternative is chosen. The purpose of planning is to minimize the use of resources (costs) while performing the task satisfactorily. The basic use of equipment, materials, manpower and coordination of efforts is the basic objective. The result of the planning is a predetermined action plan. Thus, the planning creates an ordered sequence of events, defines the strategies to follow to achieve the plan and describes the final disposition of the result. The planning process involves placing the different activities of the project in order. Planning is needed for ongoing project control (monitoring), for resource mobilization, in order to minimize the cost and the optimal use of resources.
Various planning techniques have been used to plan the activity sequentially in project management. In the construction project, the histogram and the critical path method (CPM) were widely used. During the planning process, a manager builds the facilities on paper, identifying each task and time. During construction, these predefined actions form the basis for monitoring and controlling the progress of work. The following steps are followed during planning, planning and control.
Activity is a well-defined task that consumes time and resources. The identification of the activity depends on the level of detail and the requirements of management. Different levels of leaders require different details in project planning. For example, the cost of a beam may be an activity in the construction of a building or it can be divided into several activities such as bar planning, shaping, mixing and pouring concrete, curing beam, etc. Generally, the tasks to be performed are detailed using the "top-down design". The Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) is a useful tool for identifying activity. The result of this phase is the complete list of activities to carry out the project.
In this step, each activity is considered. The activity that will succeed the activity in question is discussed. Thus, we get the next immediate activity or immediate successor. This way of thinking is called planning. We can also think which activity will precede the activity and in a similar way we can prepare a list of immediate precedence. This way of thinking is called backward planning. The result of this step is the list of activities with the previous or next immediate activity. This step is carried out by the most competent people on the team. Generally, these steps are performed by the most experienced people in the sub-contractor's department or company.
The estimation of activity duration without bias is very important . To avoid bias in the estimate , we can follow some guidelines which are described as follows -
To estimate resources, the project manager must take into account the efficiency of the machine, the productivity of the workforce, the learning process, the conditions of the site, the impact of time. For example, a person on the ground can do more plastering than standing on a scaffold. Similarly, the efficiency of a person is less at the beginning of work and increases slowly to reach the level of saturation along the learning curve, as indicated
In this step, the first start, the closest end time, the last start time, the last end time, the critical activity, the time cost optimization, the resource planning via the network, etc. are performed. We will illustrate these calculations with examples.
Planning is a pre-construction activity. The project schedule tells the project manager how to organize the different activities, what resources will be needed at a given time and what progress is expected. During the construction phase, the calendar is used as a reference to check if the project is ahead or behind schedule. If it is late, network planning also facilitates resource mobilization.
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