Construction is the process of building a building or infrastructure. Construction differs from manufacturing in that manufacturing involves the mass production of similar items without a designated buyer, while construction is usually done on-site for a known customer. Construction begins with planning, design and financing; it continues until the project is built and ready for use.
Large scale construction requires collaboration between several disciplines. A project manager normally manages the work and is supervised by a construction manager, a design engineer, a construction engineer or an architect. Those involved in design and implementation must consider zoning requirements, the environmental impact of the work, planning, budgeting, site safety, availability and transportation of building materials, logistics , the inconvenience to the public caused by construction delays and auctions. Major construction projects are sometimes referred to as megaprojects.
When planning various types of construction, the methods of purchasing professional services, awarding construction contracts and financing facilities may be very different. For the purposes of discussion, the wide range of facilities constructed can be classified into four broad categories, each with its own characteristics.
Housing construction includes single-family homes, multi-family dwellings, and high-rise apartment buildings. In the development and construction of such projects, promoters or sponsors familiar with the construction sector generally serve as surrogates and take responsibility for them, concluding the contractual agreements necessary for the design and construction, organizing the financing and sale of the projects. completed structures. Residential housing design is generally done by architects and engineers, and construction by builders who hire contractors for structural, mechanical, electrical and other specialized work. An exception to this model is single-family homes that can also be designed by builders.
The residential housing market is strongly affected by general economic conditions, tax laws and the government's monetary and fiscal policies. Often, a slight increase in total demand will result in a substantial investment in construction, as many housing projects can be started at different locations at the same time by different individuals and developers. Due to the relative ease of entry, at least in the lower segment of the market, many new builders are attracted by the construction of residential housing. As a result, this market is highly competitive, with potentially high risks and high profits.
Institutional and commercial building construction encompasses a great variety of project types and sizes, such as schools and universities, medical clinics and hospitals, recreational facilities and sports stadiums, retail chain stores and large shopping centers, warehouses and light manufacturing plants, and skyscrapers for offices and hotels. The owners of such buildings may or may not be familiar with construction industry practices, but they usually are able to select competent professional consultants and arrange the financing of the constructed facilities themselves. Specialty architects and engineers are often engaged for designing a specific type of building, while the builders or general contractors undertaking such projects may also be specialized in only that type of building.
Due to the higher costs and increased sophistication of institutional and commercial buildings compared to residential dwellings, this market segment is shared by fewer competitors. Since the construction of some of these buildings is a long process which, once started, will take some time to complete, demand is less sensitive to general economic conditions than speculative housing. As a result, homeowners may be faced with an oligopoly of general contractors competing in the same market. In an oligopoly situation, there is only a limited number of competitors and a firm's price for services may be based in part on its competitive local market strategies.
Specialized industrial construction usually involves very large-scale projects with a high degree of technological complexity, such as oil refineries, steel mills, chemical processing plants, coal-fired power plants or nuclear power plants. Owners are usually deeply involved in developing a project and prefer to work with designer-builders to reduce the total time required to complete the project. They also want to choose a team of designers and builders with whom the owner has developed good working relationships over the years.
Although the state of the economy also has an impact on the launch of such projects, long-term demand forecasting is the most important factor, as these projects are highly capital intensive and require considerable planning and construction. Government regulations such as decisions of the Environmental Protection Agency and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission can also have a profound influence on decisions about these projects.
Infrastructure and heavy construction include projects such as highways, public transit systems, tunnels, bridges, pipelines, drainage systems and sewage treatment plants. Most of these projects are publicly owned and therefore financed either by bonds or taxes. This category of construction is characterized by a high degree of mechanization, which has gradually replaced some labor-intensive operations.
Engineers and builders engaged in infrastructure construction tend to be highly specialized because each market segment requires different types of skills. However, the demand for different segments of infrastructure and heavy construction can evolve with saturation in some segments. For example, while available highway construction projects are declining, some heavy construction contractors are rapidly moving their workforce and equipment into the mining sector where jobs are available.
SOUJANYA CONSTRUCTIONS is Government certified company, Most of projects are Government Projects (Panchayathi, Irrigation, WR&D). The Soujanya Construction has completed close to 70 projects. The Soujanya Construction has successfully completed diverse projects like Roads, buildings, waterplants and commercial projects as well. The company has expertise of handling multiple projects at a time.